## Curtis Porter : CRash CouRse in CR Geometry

- Graduate/Faculty Seminar,Uploaded Videos ( 2252 Views )CR geometry studies real hypersurfaces in complex vector spaces and their generalizations, CR manifolds. In many cases of interest to complex analysis and PDE, CR manifolds can be considered ``curved versions" of homogeneous spaces according to Elie Cartanâ€™s generalization of Kleinâ€™s Erlangen program. Which homogeneous space is the ``flat model" of a CR manifold depends on the Levi form, a tensor named after a mathematician who used it to characterize boundaries of pseudoconvex domains. As in the analytic setting, the Levi form plays a central role in the geometry of CR manifolds, which we explore in relation to their homogeneous models.

## Margaret Regan : Using homotopy continuation to solve parametrized polynomial systems in applications

- Graduate/Faculty Seminar,Uploaded Videos ( 1832 Views )Many problems that arise in mathematics, science, and engineering can be formulated as solving a parameterized system of polynomial equations which must be solved for given instances of the parameters. One way to solve these systems is to use a common technique within numerical algebraic geometry called homotopy continuation. My talk will start with background on homotopy continuation and parametrized polynomial systems, followed by applications to problems in computer vision and kinematics. Of these, I will first present a new approach which uses locally adaptive methods and sparse matrix calculations to solve parameterized overdetermined systems in projective space. Examples will be provided in 2D image reconstruction to compare the new methods with traditional approaches in numerical algebraic geometry. Second, I will discuss a new definition of monodromy action over the real numbers which encodes tiered characteristics regarding real solutions. Examples will be given to show the benefits of this definition over a naive extension of the monodromy group (over the complex numbers). In addition, an application in kinematics will be discussed to highlight the computational method and impact on calibration.

## Demetre Kazaras:The geometry and topology of positive scalar curvature

- Graduate/Faculty Seminar,Uploaded Videos ( 1663 Views )I will give an informal overview of the history and status of my field. Local invariants of Riemannian metrics are called curvature, the weakest of which is known as "scalar curvature." The study of metrics with positive scalar curvature is very rich with >100 year old connections to General Relativity and smooth topology. Does this geometric condition have topological implications? The answer turns out to be "yes," but mathematicians continue to search for the true heart of the positive scalar curvature conditions.

## Stochastic and continuum dynamics in intracellular transport

- Graduate/Faculty Seminar,Uploaded Videos ( 1111 Views )The cellular cytoskeleton is made up of protein polymers (filaments) that are essential in proper cell and neuronal function as well as in development. These filaments represent the roads along which most protein transport occurs inside cells. I will discuss several examples where questions about filament-cargo interactions require the development of novel mathematical modeling, analysis, and simulation. Protein cargoes such as neurofilaments and RNA molecules bind to and unbind from cellular roads called microtubules, switching between bidirectional transport, diffusion, and stationary states. Since these transport models can be analytically intractable, we have proposed asymptotic methods in the framework of partial differential equations and stochastic processes which are useful in understanding large-time transport properties. I will discuss a recent project where we use stochastic modeling to understand how filament orientations may influence sorting of cargo in dendrites during neural development and axonal injury.

## Holden Lee : Recovering sparse Fourier signals, with application to system identification

- Graduate/Faculty Seminar,Uploaded Videos ( 1090 Views )The problem of recovering a sparse Fourier signal from samples comes up in signal processing, imaging, NMR spectroscopy, and machine learning. Two major challenges involve dealing with off-grid frequencies, and dealing with signals lacking separation between frequencies. Without a minimum separation condition, the problem of frequency recovery is exponentially ill-conditioned, but the signal can still be efficiently recovered in an "improper" manner using an appropriate filter. I will explain such an algorithm for sparse Fourier recovery, and the theory behind why it works - involving some clever analytic inequalities for Fourier-sparse signals. Finally, I will discuss recent work with Xue Chen on applying these ideas to system identification. Identification of a linear dynamical system from partial observations is a fundamental problem in control theory. A natural question is how to do so with statistical rates depending on the inherent dimensionality (or order) of the system, akin to the sparsity of a signal. We solve this question by casting system identification as a "multi-scale" sparse Fourier recovery problem.

## Yiming Zhong : Fast algorithm for Radiative transport

- Graduate/Faculty Seminar,Uploaded Videos ( 991 Views )This talk consists of two aspects about solving the radiative transport through the integral formulation. The radiative transport equation has been numerically studied for many years, the equation is difficult to solve due to its high dimensionality and its hyperbolic nature, in recent decades, the computers are equipped with larger memories so it is possible to deal with the full-discretization in phase space, however, the numerical efficiency is quite limited because of many issues, such as iterative scheme, preconditioning, discretization, etc. In this talk, we first discuss about the special case of isotropic scattering and its integral formulation, then walk through the corresponding fast algorithm for it. In the second part, we try to trivially extend the method to anisotropic case, and talk about the methodâ€™s limitation and some perspectives in both theory and numerics.

## Paul Aspinwall : The Ubiquity of the ADE Classification

- Graduate/Faculty Seminar ( 266 Views )Many classes of mathematical objects turn out to be classified in the same way --- two infinite series and 3 "exceptional" objects. These include symmetries of 3-dimensional solids, rigid singularities, certain types of Lie algebras, positive definite even intersection forms, etc. Discovering why such classes should have the same classification has led to many beautiful ideas and observations. I will give a review of some of the basic ideas (assuming very little in the way of prerequisites) and I may have time to say why string theory has been important in this context.

## George Lam : The Positive Mass Theorem in General Relativity

- Graduate/Faculty Seminar ( 239 Views )The Positive Mass Theorem in general relativity states that a spacelike hypersurface of a spacetime satisfying the dominant energy condition must have nonnegative total mass. In the special case in which the hypersurface is totally geodesic, local energy density coincides with scalar curvature, and the above theorem becomes a purely geometric statement about complete, asymptotically flat Riemannian manifolds. I will try to present the necessary background for one to understand the statement of the theorem. I will also discuss attempts to better understand the relationship between scalar curvature and total mass. Note that this talk is especially geared towards early graduate students and people specializing in other fields, and thus I will assume no previous knowledge of smooth manifolds, Riemannian geometry or general relativity.

## Miles M. Crosskey : Mathematics in Magic

- Graduate/Faculty Seminar ( 224 Views )Many simple card tricks rely on mathematical principles and logic. I will be talking about some of these tricks, and the interesting ideas behind them. Hopefully I will have time to show you two or three tricks, and the proof to how they work. I will be using work from Mathematical Magic by Diaconis and Graham. The exciting thing about these tricks is they do not rely upon sleight of hand, and come out looking stunning nonetheless.

## Paul Bendich : Topology and Geometry for Tracking and Sensor Fusion

- Graduate/Faculty Seminar ( 205 Views )Many systems employ sensors to interpret the environment. The target-tracking task is to gather sensor data from the environment and then to partition these data into tracks that are produced by the same target. The goal of sensor fusion is to gather data from a heterogeneous collection of sensors (e.g, audio and video) and fuse them together in a way that enriches the performance of the sensor network at some task of interest. This talk summarizes two recent efforts that incorporate mildly sophisticated mathematics into the general sensor arena, and also comments on the joys and pitfalls of trying to apply math for customers who care much more about the results than the math. First, a key problem in tracking is to 'connect the dots:' more precisely, to take a piece of sensor data at a given time and associate it with a previously-existing track (or to declare that this is a new object). We use topological data analysis (TDA) to form data-association likelihood scores, and integrate these scores into a well-respected algorithm called Multiple Hypothesis Tracking. Tests on simulated data show that the TDA adds significant value over baseline, especially in the context of noisy sensor data. Second, we propose a very general and entirely unsupervised sensor fusion pipeline that uses recent techniques from diffusion geometry and wavelet theory to compress and then fuse time series of arbitrary dimension arising from disparate sensor modalities. The goal of the pipeline is to differentiate classes of time-ordered behavior sequences, and we demonstrate its performance on a well-studied digit sequence database. This talk represents joint work with many people. including Chris Tralie, Nathan Borggren, Sang Chin, Jesse Clarke, Jonathan deSena, John Harer, Jay Hineman, Elizabeth Munch, Andrew Newman, Alex Pieloch, David Porter, David Rouse, Nate Strawn, Adam Watkins, Michael Williams, Lihan Yao, and Peter Zulch.

## Jianfeng Lu : Surface hopping: Mystery and opportunities for mathematicians

- Graduate/Faculty Seminar ( 201 Views )Surface hopping is a very popular approach in theoretical chemistry for mixed quantum-classical dynamics. Yes, the above sentence looks scary. Let us start over again ... We will examine from a mathematical point of view how stochastic trajectories can be used to approximate solutions to a Schrodinger equation (which is different from what Feynman did). Besides some applications in chemistry, this is a nice topic since it combines ideas from asymptotic analysis, applied probability, and applied harmonic analysis. The only background assumed in this talk is "separation of variables" (and of course some PDEs where separation of variables is applied to).

## Spencer Leslie : Intro to crystal graphs and their connections with number theory

- Graduate/Faculty Seminar ( 199 Views )I will review some basics of crystal bases for highest-weight representations for a semisimple Lie algebra. I will also point to some connections with number theory through Fourier coefficients of Eisenstein series, mostly in type A.

## Siming He : Suppression of Chemotactic blow-up through fluid flows

- Graduate/Faculty Seminar ( 198 Views )The Patlak-Keller-Segel equations (PKS) are widely applied to model the chemotaxis phenomena in biology. It is well-known that if the total mass of the initial cell density is large enough, the PKS equations exhibit finite time blow-up. In this talk, I will present some recent results on applying additional fluid flows to suppress chemotactic blow-up in the PKS equations.

## Lihan Wang : Approximation of Correctors and Multipoles in Random Elliptic Media

- Graduate/Faculty Seminar ( 198 Views )We consider the whole-space decaying solution of second-order elliptic PDE in divergence form with space dimension d=3, where the coefficient field is a realization of a stationary, uniformly elliptic, unit range ensemble of random field, and the right-hand-side is deterministic and compactly supported in a ball of size \ell. Given the coefficient field in a large box of size L much larger than \ell, we are interested in an algorithm to compute the gradient of the solution with the "best" artificial boundary condition on the domain of size L which describes the correct long-range multipole behavior. We want to show that, with high probability, our algorithm reaches the CLT-type lower bound of error. Joint work with Jianfeng Lu and Felix Otto.

## Dong Yao : Two problems in probability theory

- Graduate/Faculty Seminar ( 197 Views )This talk will be concerned with two problems. The first is the zeros of the derivatives of. Kac random polynomials K_n, which is a random polynomial with i.i.d. coefficients. It has been shown that the empirical measure of zeros of K_n will converge to the uniform measure on the unit circle of complex plane. Same convergence holds true for nay fixed order of derivative of K_n. In a joint work with Renjie Feng, we show if we consider the N_n-th order of derivative of K_n, then asymptotic behavior of empirical measure of this derivative will depend on the limit of \frac{N_n}{n}. In particular, as long as this ratio is greater than 0, the phenomenon of Â?zeros clustering around unit circleÂ? breaks down. The second talk is about Average Nearest Neighbor Degree (ANND), which is a measure for the degree-degree correlation for complex network. We shall be concerned with the probabilistic properties of ANND in the configuration model. We prove if the variable X generating the network has order of moment larger than 2, then the ANND(k) will converge uniformly to μ2/μ1, where μ2 is the second moment of X, and μ1 is the first moment. For the case that X has infinite variance, we show the pointwise (i.e., for fixed k) scaled convergence of ANND(k) to a stable random variable. This is joint work with Nelly Litvak and Pim van der Hoorn. More recently, Clara Stegehuis showed that when X is sample from the Pareto distribution, then one can obtain a complete spectrum of ANND(k) for the erased configuration model.

## Tom Witelski : Perturbation analysis for impulsive differential equations: How asymptotics can resolve the ambiguities of distribution theory

- Graduate/Faculty Seminar ( 196 Views )Models for dynamical systems that include short-time or abrupt forcing can be written as impulsive differential equations. Applications include mechanical systems with impacts and models for electro-chemical spiking signals in neurons. We consider a model for spiking in neurons given by a nonlinear ordinary differential equation that includes a Dirac delta function. Ambiguities in how to interpret such equations can be resolved via perturbation methods and asymptotic analysis of delta sequences.

## Robert Bryant : The Concept of Holonomy

- Graduate/Faculty Seminar ( 190 Views )In the 19th century, people began to study mechanical systems in which motion in a configuration space was constrained by 'no slip' conditions, such as, for example, a wheel or a ball rolling on a plane without slipping. It was immediately noticed that there were many cases in which these 'rolling' constraints did not prevent one from being able to join any two points in a configuration space by an admissible path, and these situations were called 'non-holonomic'. The notion of 'holonomy' arose as a way to quantify and study these 'non-holonomic' systems, and it has turned out to be very fruitful, with many applications in differential geometry and mathematical physics as well as in practical mechanics problems (such as figuring out how to use robot hands to manipulate 3-dimensional objects). In this talk, I'll introduce the ideas that led to the development of the concept of holonomy, show how some simple examples are computed, and describe how even very simple systems, such as a convex surface rolling over another surface without slipping or twisting, can lead to some surprising and exceptional geometry. No expertise in differential geometry will be assumed; if you are comfortable with vector calculus, you can enjoy the talk.

## Bianca Santoro : Nice person speaks of ... ?

- Graduate/Faculty Seminar ( 187 Views )THIS JUST IN - An Abstract: I plan to speak about the good old Calabi Conjecture, and its beautiful solution by Yau, that gave gim the Fields Medal. I will start with some background material, and see how far we can get into the proof!

## Bill Allard : The Boundary Finder

- Graduate/Faculty Seminar ( 185 Views )(This abstract is in TeX source code. Sorry!) Fix a small positive number $h$. Let $$G=h\mathbb{Z}^2=\{(ih,jh):i,j\in\mathbb{Z}\};$$ thus $G$ is a rectangular grid of points in $\mathbb{R}^2$. Let $\Omega$ be an bounded open subset of $\mathbb{R}^2$ with $C^1$ boundary and let $E=\{x\in G:x\in\Omega\}$. {\bf Question One.} Given $E$ can one determine the length of $\partial\Omega$ to within $O(h)$? The answer to this question is ``yes'', provided $\Omega$ satisfies a certain natural ``thickness'' condition; without this additional assumption the answer may be ``no''. {\bf Question Two.} Is there a fast algorithm for determining the length of $\partial\Omega$. The answer to this question also ``yes''. In this talk I will describe the proof that the answer to Question One is ``yes'' and I will describe the fast algorithm whose existence is implied in the answer to Question Two. If time permits, I will describe some applications.

## Abraham Smith : DEs to EDS: How to solve PDEs without being clever

- Graduate/Faculty Seminar ( 174 Views )This talk is directed to anyone who cares about anything, at all levels. In particular, it will be a soft introduction to exterior differential systems (EDS). EDS is often associated with differential geometry, but it is really just a language for understanding the solution space of differential equations. The EDS viewpoint is temporarily mind-bending, but its concise and clean description of integrability, from conservation laws to geometric invariants, justifies the initial cramps.

## Hubert Bray : An Overview of General Relativity

- Graduate/Faculty Seminar ( 169 Views )After brief introductions to special relativity and the foundations of differential geometry, we will discuss the big ideas behind Einstein's theory of general relativity. Einstein's theory replaces Newtonian physics not only as the best description of gravity according to experiments, but also as a philosophically pleasing and very geometric idea, which Einstein called his "happiest thought." We will also discuss the predictions made by general relativity, including the big bang and black holes, both of which are strongly supported by observations. We will discuss these ideas from a geometric perspective, and discuss some of the open problems and future directions that are currently being studied.

## Masha Bessonov : The Voter Model

- Graduate/Faculty Seminar ( 165 Views )We'll look at a random process on the integer lattice $/mathbb{Z}^2$ known as the voter model. Let's suppose that each point on the lattice represents a single household with one voter who holds one of two possible opinions, 0 or 1 (e.g. Republican or Democrat). Starting with an initial configuration of 0's and 1's on $/mathbb{Z}^2$, a voter changes their opinion at a rate proportional to the number of neighbors holding a different opinion. I'll demonstrate a clever and useful approach to analysing the voter model via the dual process. We'll be able to determine whether or not our process has any nontrivial stationary distributions. I'll also briefly discuss the newest research on variants of the voter model.

## Lenhard Ng : Knots and low dimensional topology

- Graduate/Faculty Seminar ( 165 Views )Knots, while combinatorial in flavor, play a key role in the topology of manifolds in three and four dimensions. I'll discuss this role and describe some classical problems about knots that were surprisingly solved only recently through high-powered techniques. Gauge theory, symplectic geometry, and the Poincare conjecture may make cameo appearances.

## Anne Catlla : Mean, Lean ODE-fighting Machine

- Graduate/Faculty Seminar ( 156 Views )Our brains are composed of networks of cells, including neurons and glial cells. While the significance of neurons has been established by biologists, the role of glial cells is less understood. One hypothesis is that glial cells facilitate neural communication in nearby neurons, while suppressing communication among more distant neurons via a reaction-diffusion process. I consider this proposed mechanism using partial and ordinary differential equation models. By analyzing the ordinary differential equation model, I can determine conditions for this hypothesis to hold. I then compare the results of this analysis with simulations of the partial differential equation model and discuss the biological implications.