The three-dimensional higher-order structure of biomolecules
determines their functionality. While assessing primary structure is
fairly easily accessible, reconstruction of higher order structure is
costly. It often requires elaborate correction of atomic clashes,
frequently not fully successful. Using RNA data, we describe a purely
statistical method, learning error correction, drawing power from a
two-scale approach. Our microscopic scale describes single suites by
dihedral angles of individual atom bonds; here, addressing the
challenge of torus principal component analysis (PCA) leads to a
fundamentally new approach to PCA building on principal nested spheres
by Jung et al. (2012). Based on an observed relationship with a
mesoscopic scale, landmarks describing several suites, we use Fréchet
means for angular shape and size-and-shape, correcting
within-suite-backbone-to-backbone clashes. We validate this method by
comparison to reconstructions obtained from simulations approximating
biophysical chemistry and illustrate its power by the RNA example of
This is joint work with Benjamin Eltzner, Kanti V. Mardia and Henrik Wiechers.
Eltzner, B., Huckemann, S. F., Mardia, K. V. (2018): Torus principal component analysis with applications to RNA structure. Ann. Appl. Statist. 12(2), 1332?1359.
Jung, S., Dryden, I. L., Marron, J. S. (2012): Analysis of principal nested spheres. Biometrika, 99 (3), 551-568
Mardia, K. V., Wiechers, H., Eltzner, B., Huckemann, S. F. (2022). Principal component analysis and clustering on manifolds. Journal of Multivariate Analysis, 188, 104862, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047259X21001408
Wiechers, H., Eltzner, B., Mardia, K. V., Huckemann, S. F. (2021). Learning torus PCA based classification for multiscale RNA backbone structure correction with application to SARS-CoV-2. To appear in the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series C, bioRxiv https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.08.06.455406
Casey Diekman : Data Assimilation and Dynamical Systems Analysis of Circadian Rhythmicity and Entrainment- Uploaded by schrett ( 71 Views )
Circadian rhythms are biological oscillations that align our physiology and behavior with the 24-hour environmental cycles conferred by the Earth’s rotation. In this talk, I will discuss two projects that focus on circadian clock cells in the brain and the entrainment of circadian rhythms to the light-dark cycle. Most of what we know about the electrical activity of circadian clock neurons comes from studies of nocturnal (night-active) rodents, hindering the translation of this knowledge to diurnal (day-active) humans. In the first part of the talk, we use data assimilation and patch-clamp recordings from the diurnal rodent Rhabdomys pumilio to build the first mathematical models of the electrophysiology of circadian neurons in a day-active species. We find that the electrical activity of circadian neurons is similar overall between nocturnal and diurnal rodents but that there are some interesting differences in their responses to inhibition. In the second part of the talk, we use tools from dynamical systems theory to study the reentrainment of a model of the human circadian pacemaker following perturbations that simulate jet lag. We show that the reentrainment dynamics are organized by invariant manifolds of fixed points of a 24-hour stroboscopic map and use these manifolds to explain a rapid reentrainment phenomenon that occurs under certain jet lag scenarios.
We present two models of perpetrators' decision-making in extracting resources from a protected area. It is assumed that the authorities conduct surveillance to counter the extraction activities, and that perpetrators choose their post-extraction paths to balance the time/hardship of travel against the expected losses from a possible detection. In our first model, the authorities are assumed to use ground patrols and the protected resources are confiscated as soon as the extractor is observed with them. The perpetrators' path-planning is modeled using the optimal control of randomly-terminated process. In our second model, the authorities use aerial patrols, with the apprehension of perpetrators and confiscation of resources delayed until their exit from the protected area. In this case the path-planning is based on multi-objective dynamic programming. Our efficient numerical methods are illustrated on several examples with complicated geometry and terrain of protected areas, non-uniform distribution of protected resources, and spatially non-uniform detection rates due to aerial or ground patrols.
The notochord, the defining feature of chordates, is a pressurized tube which actuates elongation of the chordate embryo. The zebrafish notochord consists of large vacuolated cells surrounded by a thin sheath. We characterized the patterns of the cells’ packing, and their relationship to the known regular patterns from the study of foams, and irregular patterns in a gel bead system. Disruption of the wild type packing pattern leads to developmental defects. We characterize the bifurcations between the relevant regular patterns in terms of nondimensional geometrical and mechanical ratios, and suggest an important developmental role for the eccentric "staircase" pattern.
Many patterns in Nature and industry arise from the system minimizing an appropriate energy. Torn plastic sheets and growing leaves provide striking examples of pattern forming systems which can transition from single wavelength geometries (leaves) to complex fractal-like shapes (lettuce). These fractal-like patterns seem to have many length scales, i.e. the same amount of extra detail can be seen when looking closer (“statistical self-similarity”). It is a mystery how such complex patterns could arise from energy minimization alone. In this talk I will address this puzzle by showing that such patterns naturally arise from the sheet adopting a hyperbolic non-Euclidean geometry. However, there are many different hyperbolic geometries that the growing leaf could select. I will show using techniques from analysis, differential geometry and numerical optimization that the fractal like patterns are indeed the natural minimizers for the system. I will also discuss the implications of our work to developing shape changing soft matter which can be implemented in soft machines.
Aaron Fogelson : Two Examples of Chemical Modulation of the Properties and Dynamics of Physiological Gels: Fibrin Formation and Mucin Swelling- Uploaded by root ( 100 Views )
Gels formed from mixtures of polymers and solvent are ubiquitous in physiological systems. The structure and properties of a gel can change dramatically in response to chemical modulation. Two examples of the influence of chemistry on gel properties will be discussed. The structure of fibrin gels that form during blood clotting is strongly influenced by the concentration of the enzyme thrombin that produces the fibrin monomers from which the gel is built. Presumably at higher thrombin concentrations, fibrin monomers are produced more rapidly from the precursor fibrinogen molecules. I will present an analysis of a possible mechanism of fibrin branching that can explain the sensitivity of fibrin structure to the rate of supply of monomers. Mucin gel is released from vesicles in goblet cells. During this exocytotic process, the polyelectrolyte mucin gel swells to many times its original volume at a very rapid rate. I will present a model in which this swelling is triggered by an exchange of divalent calcium ions in the vesicle and monovalent sodium ions in the extracellular space, and in which the ion concentrations and the rheological properties of the mucin gel determine its equilibrium size and the dynamics of its swelling.
In this talk, we will introduce a deterministic malaria model for determining the drug administration protocol that leads to the smallest first malaria episodes during the wet season. To explore the effects of administering the malaria drug on different days during wet season while minimizing the potential harmful effects of drug overdose, we will define 40 drug administration protocols. Our results fit well with the clinical studies of Coulibaly et al. at a site in Mali. In addition, we will provide protocols that lead to small number of first malaria episodes during the wet season than the protocol of Coulibaly et al. In the second part of the talk, we will use our malaria model to "capture" the 2013 Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported data on the 2011 number of imported malaria cases in the US. Furthermore; we will use our "fitted" malaria models for the top 20 countries of malaria acquisition by US residents to study the impact of protecting US residents from malaria infection when they travel to malaria endemic areas, the impact of protecting residents of malaria endemic regions from mosquito bites and the impact of killing mosquitoes in those endemic areas on the 2013 CDC malaria surveillance data.
Many mathematical models in biology can be described by a system of hyperbolic conservation laws with nonlinear and nonlocal coefficients. In order to determine these coefficients one needs to solve auxiliary systems of equations, for example elliptic or parabolic PDEs, which are coupled to the hyperbolic equations. In this talk we give several examples: The growth of tumors, the shrinking of dermal wounds, T cell differentiation, the growth of drug resistant bacteria in hospitals, and the transport of molecules along microtubules in axon. In these examples, the auxiliary systems range from elliptic-parabolic free boundary problems to nonlocal ODEs. Motivated by biological questions, we shall describe mathematical results regarding properties of the solutions of the conservation laws. For example, we shall determine the stability of spherical tumors and the growth of fingers; we shall discuss conditions for shrinking of the wound; suggest how to reduce the growth of drug resistant bacteria, and derive biologically motivated asymptotic behavior of solutions.
My talk will have two parts. PART I, From Birds to Bacteria: Generalised Velocity Jump Processes. There are various cases of animal movement where behaviour broadly switches between two modes of operation, corresponding to a long distance movement state and a resting or local movement state. In this talk, I will give a mathematical description of this process, adapted from Friedrich et. al. (2006). The approach allows the specification any running or waiting time distribution along with any angular and speed distributions. The resulting system of partial integro-differential equations are tumultuous and therefore it is necessary to both simplify and derive summary statistics. We derive an expression for the mean squared displacement, which shows good agreement with experimental data from the bacterium Escherichia coli and the gull Larus fuscus. Finally a large time diffusive approximation is considered via a Cattaneo approximation (Hillen, 2004). This leads to the novel result that the effective diffusion constant is dependent on the mean and variance of the running time distribution but only on the mean of the waiting time distribution. We also consider the Levy regime where the variance of the running distribution tends to infinity. This leads to a fractional diffusion equation for superdiffusive Levy walks and can be solved analytically. Our theory opens up new perspectives both for the systematic derivation of such equations, and for experimental data analysis of intermittent motion. I will also briefly discuss recent developments (by other researchers) within the field of velocity jump processes. PART II: Modelling Osteocyte Network Formation: Healthy and Cancerous Environments. Advanced prostate, breast, and lung cancer can metastasize to bone. In pathological bone, the highly regulated bone remodeling signaling pathway is disrupted. Within bone dendritic osteocytes form a spatial network allowing communication between osteocytes and the osteoblasts located on the bone surface. This communication network facilitates coordinated bone formation. In the presence of a cancerous microenvironment, the morphology of this network changes. Commonly osteocytes appear to be either overdifferentiated (i.e., there are more dendrites) or underdeveloped (i.e., dendrites do not fully form). In addition to structural changes, preliminary studies measuring the number of osteocytes per unit area using pathology slides show that the number density of osteocytes change from healthy to metastatic prostate and breast cancer xenografted mice. We present a stochastic agent-based model for bone formation incorporating osteoblasts and osteocytes that allows us to probe both network structure and number density of osteocytes in bone. Our model both allows for the simulation of our spatial network model and analysis of mean-field equations in the form of integro-partial differential equations. We consider variations of our model to test specific physiological hypotheses related to osteoblast differentiation; for example we can predict how changing measurable biological parameters, such as rates of bone secretion, rates of dendrite growth and rates of osteoblast differentiation can allow for qualitatively different network morphologies, and vice versa. We thenuse our model to hypothesize reasons for the limited efficacy of zoledronate therapy on metastatic breast cancer.
Cancers are caused by mutations that may be inherited, induced by environmental factors, or result from DNA replication errors (R). We studied the relationship between the number of normal stem cell divisions and the risk of 17 cancer types in 69 countries throughout the world. The data revealed a strong correlation (median = 0.80) between cancer incidence and normal stem cell divisions in all countries, regardless of their environment. The major role of R mutations in cancer etiology was supported by an independent approach, based solely on cancer genome sequencing and epidemiological data, which suggested that R mutations are responsible for two-thirds of the mutations in human cancers. All of these results are consistent with epidemiological estimates of the fraction of cancers that can be prevented by changes in the environment. Moreover, they accentuate the importance of early detection and intervention to reduce deaths from the many cancers arising from unavoidable R mutations.
The behavior of inextensible fibers immersed in a fluid is of interest in a variety of applications ranging from polymer suspensions to actin filament transport. In these cases, the dynamics of an immersed fiber can play a large role in the observed macroscale fluid dynamics. The method of regularized Stokeslets provides a way to calculate fluid velocities in the Stokes fluid flow regime due to a collection of regularized point-forces without computing fluid velocities on an underlying grid. In this discussion, the method of Regularized Stokeslets will be used to model the dynamics of an inextensible flexible fiber immersed in a two-dimensional cellular background flow in comparison with results found in the experimental and mathematical literature. Studying this scenario with regularized Stokeslets provides insight into the documented stretch-coil transition and macroscale random walk behavior supported by mathematical models and experimental results.