Lucy Zhang : Modeling and Simulations of Fluid and Deformable-Structure Interactions in Bio-Mechanical Systems- Applied Math and Analysis ( 142 Views )
Fluid-structure interactions exist in many aspects of our daily lives. Some biomedical engineering examples are blood flowing through a blood vessel and blood pumping in the heart. Fluid interacting with moving or deformable structures poses more numerical challenges for its complexity in dealing with transient and simultaneous interactions between the fluid and solid domains. To obtain stable, effective, and accurate solutions is not trivial. Traditional methods that are available in commercial software often generate numerical instabilities.
In this talk, a novel numerical solution technique, Immersed Finite Element Method (IFEM), is introduced for solving complex fluid-structure interaction problems in various engineering fields. The fluid and solid domains are fully coupled, thus yield accurate and stable solutions. The variables in the two domains are interpolated via a delta function that enables the use of non-uniform grids in the fluid domain, which allows the use of arbitrary geometry shapes and boundary conditions. This method extends the capabilities and flexibilities in solving various biomedical, traditional mechanical, and aerospace engineering problems with detailed and realistic mechanics analysis. Verification problems will be shown to validate the accuracy and effectiveness of this numerical approach. Several biomechanical problems will be presented: 1) blood flow in the left atrium and left atrial appendage which is the main source of blood in patients with atrial fibrillation. The function of the appendage is determined through fluid-structure interaction analysis, 2) examine blood cell and cell interactions under different flow shear rates. The formation of the cell aggregates can be predicted when given a physiologic shear rate.
Michael Siegel : Modeling, analysis, and computations of the influence of surfactant on the breakup of bubbles and drops in a viscous fluid- Applied Math and Analysis ( 99 Views )
We present an overview of experiments, numerical simulations, and mathematical analysis of the breakup of a low viscosity drop in a viscous fluid, and consider the role of surface contaminants, or surfactants, on the dynamics near breakup. As part of our study, we address a significant difficulty in the numerical computation of fluid interfaces with soluble surfactant that occurs in the important limit of very large values of bulk Peclet number Pe. At the high values of Pe in typical fluid-surfactant systems, there is a narrow transition layer near the drop surface or interface in which the surfactant concentration varies rapidly, and its gradient at the interface must be determined accurately to find the drops dynamics. Accurately resolving the layer is a challenge for traditional numerical methods. We present recent work that uses the narrowness of the layer to develop fast and accurate `hybrid numerical methods that incorporate a separate analytical reduction of the dynamics within the transition layer into a full numerical solution of the interfacial free boundary problem.
Reaction-diffusion equations are widely used to model spatial propagation, and constant-speed "traveling waves" play a central role in their dynamics. These waves are well understood in "essentially 1D" domains like cylinders, but much less is known about waves with noncompact transverse structure. In this direction, we will consider traveling waves of the Fisher–KPP reaction-diffusion equation in the Dirichlet half-space. We will see that minimal-speed waves are unique (unlike faster waves) and exhibit curious asymptotics. The arguments rest on the theory of conformal maps and a powerful connection with the probabilistic system known as branching Brownian motion.
This is joint work with Julien Berestycki, Yujin H. Kim, and Bastien Mallein.