## Peter Mucha : Hierarchical Structure in Networks: From Football to Congres

- Applied Math and Analysis ( 174 Views )The study of various questions about networks have increased dramatically in recent years across a number of areas of application, including communications, sociology, and phylogenetic biology. Important questions about communities and groupings in networks have led to a number of competing techniques for identifying communities, structures and hierarchies. We discuss results about the networks of (1) NCAA Division I-A college football matchups and (2) committee assignments in the U.S. House of Representatives. In college football, the underlying structure of the network strongly influences the computer rankings that contribute to the Bowl Championship Series standings. In Congress, the changes of the hierarchical structure from one Congress to the next can be used to investigate major political events, such as the "Republican Revolution" of 1994 and the introduction of the Select Committee on Homeland Security following September 11th. While many structural elements in each case are seemingly robust, we include attention to variations across identification algorithms as we investigate the roles of such structures.

## Svetlana Tlupova : Numerical Solutions of Coupled Stokes and Darcy Flows Based on Boundary Integrals

- Applied Math and Analysis ( 163 Views )Coupling between free fluid flow and flow through porous media is important in many industrial applications, such as filtration, underground water flow in hydrology, oil recovery in petroleum engineering, fluid flow through body tissues in biology, to name a few.

Stokes flows appear in many applications where the fluid viscosity is high and/or the velocity and length scales are small. The flow through a porous medium can be described by Darcy's law. A region that contains both requires a careful coupling of these different systems at the interface through appropriate boundary conditions.

Our objective is to develop a method based on the boundary integral formulation for computing the fluid/porous medium problem with higher accuracy using fundamental solutions of Stokes and Darcy's equations. We regularize the kernels to remove the singularity for stability of numerical calculations and eliminate the largest error for higher accuracy.

## Karin Leiderman : A Spatial-Temporal Model of Platelet Deposition and Blood Coagulation Under Flow

- Applied Math and Analysis ( 160 Views )In the event of a vascular injury, a blood clot will form to prevent bleeding. This response involves two intertwined processes: platelet aggregation and coagulation. Activated platelets are critical to coagulation in that they provide localized reactive surfaces on which many of the coagulation reactions occur. The final product from the coagulation cascade directly couples the coagulation system to platelet aggregation by acting as a strong activator of platelets and cleaving blood-borne fibrinogen into fibrin which then forms a mesh to help stabilize platelet aggregates. Together, the fibrin mesh and the platelet aggregates comprise a blood clot, which in some cases, can grow to occlusive diameters. Transport of coagulation proteins to and from the vicinity of the injury is controlled largely by the dynamics of the blood flow. It is crucial to learn how blood flow affects the growth of clots, and how the growing masses, in turn, feed back and affect the fluid motion. We have developed the first spatial-temporal model of platelet deposition and blood coagulation under flow that includes detailed descriptions of the coagulation biochemistry, chemical activation and deposition of blood platelets, as well as the two-way interaction between the fluid dynamics and the growing platelet mass.

## Julia Kimbell : Applications of upper respiratory tract modeling to risk assessment, medicine, and drug delivery

- Applied Math and Analysis ( 158 Views )The upper respiratory tract is the portal of entry for inhaled air and anything we breath in with it. For most of us, the nasal passages do most of the work cleansing, humidifying, and warming inhaled air using a lining of highly vascularized tissue coated with mucus. This tissue is susceptible to damage from inhaled material, can adversely affect life quality if deformed or diseased, and is a potential route of systemic exposure via circulating blood. To understand nasal physiology and the effects of inhalants on nasal tissue, information on airflow, gas uptake and particle deposition patterns is needed for both laboratory animals and humans. This information is often difficult to obtain in vivo but may be estimated with three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. At CIIT Centers for Health Research (CIIT-CHR), CFD models of nasal airflow and inhaled gas and particle transport have been used to test hypotheses about mechanisms of toxicity, help extrapolate laboratory animal data to people, and make predictions for human health risk assessments, as well as study surgical interventions and nasal drug delivery. In this talk an overview of CIIT-CHR's nasal airflow modeling program will be given with the goal of illustrating how CFD modeling can help researchers clarify, organize, and understand the complex structure, function, physiology, pathobiology, and utility of the nasal airways.

## Anna Gilbert : Fast Algorithms for Sparse Analysis

- Applied Math and Analysis ( 153 Views )I will present several extremely fast algorithms for recovering a compressible signal from a few linear measurements. These examples span a variety of orthonormal bases, including one large redundant dictionary. As part of the presentation of these algorithms, I will give an explanation of the crucial role of group testing in each algorithm.

## Xiaoming Wang : Large Prandtl Number Behavior of the Boussinesq System

- Applied Math and Analysis ( 148 Views )We consider large Prandtl number behavior of the Boussinesq system for Rayleigh-B\'enard convection at large time. We first show that the global attractors of the Boussinesq system converge to that of the infinite Prandtl number model. This is accomplished via a generalization of upper semi-continuity property with respect to parameters of dissipative dynamical systems to the case of singular limit of two time scale problems of relaxation type. We then show that stationary statistical properties (in terms of invariant measures) of the Boussinesq system converge to that of the infinite Prandtl number model. In particular, we derive a new upper bound on heat transport in the vertical direction (the Nusselt number) for the Boussinesq system. The new upper bound agrees with the recent physically optimal upper bound on the infinite Prandtl number model at large Prandtl number. We will also comment on possible noise induced stability and its relation to the E-Mattingly-Sinai theory.

## Catalin Turc : Domain Decomposition Methods for the solution of Helmholtz transmission problems

- Applied Math and Analysis ( 143 Views )We present several versions of non-overlapping Domain Decomposition Methods (DDM) for the solution of Helmholtz transmission problems for (a) multiple scattering configurations, (b) bounded composite scatterers with piecewise constant material properties, and (c) layered media. We show that DDM solvers give rise to important computational savings over other existing solvers, especially in the challenging high-frequency regime.

## Vladimir Sverak : On long-time behavior of 2d flows

- Applied Math and Analysis ( 134 Views )Our knowledge of the long-time behavior of 2d inviscid flows is quite limited. There are some appealing conjectures based on ideas in Statistical Mechanics, but they appear to be beyond reach of the current methods. We will discuss some partial results concerning the dynamics, as well as some results for variational problems to which the Statistical Mechanics methods lead.

## Elisabetta Matsumoto : Biomimetic 4D Printing

- Applied Math and Analysis ( 134 Views )The nascent technique of 4D printing has the potential to revolutionize manufacturing in fields ranging from organs-on-a-chip to architecture to soft robotics. By expanding the pallet of 3D printable materials to include the use stimuli responsive inks, 4D printing promises precise control over patterned shape transformations. With the goal of creating a new manufacturing technique, we have recently introduced a biomimetic printing platform that enables the direct control of local anisotropy into both the elastic moduli and the swelling response of the ink.

We have drawn inspiration from nastic plant movements to design a phytomimetic ink and printing process that enables patterned dynamic shape change upon exposure to water, and possibly other external stimuli. Our novel fiber-reinforced hydrogel ink enables local control over anisotropies not only in the elastic moduli, but more importantly in the swelling. Upon hydration, the hydrogel changes shape accord- ing the arbitrarily complex microstructure imparted during the printing process.

To use this process as a design tool, we must solve the inverse problem of prescribing the pattern of anisotropies required to generate a given curved target structure. We show how to do this by constructing a theory of anisotropic plates and shells that can respond to local metric changes induced by anisotropic swelling. A series of experiments corroborate our model by producing a range of target shapes inspired by the morphological diversity of flower petals.

## Benjamin Stamm : Efficient numerical methods for polarization effects in molecular systems

- Applied Math and Analysis ( 128 Views )In this talk we provide two examples of models and numerical methods involving N-body polarization effects. One characteristic feature of simulations involving molecular systems is that the scaling in the number of atoms or particles is important and traditional computational methods, like domain decomposition methods for example, may behave differently than problems with a fixed computational domain.

We will first see an example of a domain decomposition method in the context of the Poisson-Boltzmann continuum solvation model and present a numerical method that relies on an integral equation coupled with a domain decomposition strategy. Numerical examples illustrate the behaviour of the proposed method.

In a second case, we consider a N-body problem of interacting dielectric charged spheres whose solution satisfies an integral equation of the second kind. We present results from an a priori analysis with error bounds that are independent of the number particles N allowing for, in combination with the Fast Multipole Method (FMM), a linear scaling method. Towards the end, we finish the talk with applications to dynamic processes and enhanced stabilization of binary superlattices through polarization effects.

## Benedikt Wirth : Optimal fine-scale structures in elastic shape optimization

- Applied Math and Analysis ( 127 Views )A very classical shape optimization problem consists in optimizing the topology and geometry of an elastic structure subjected to fixed boundary loads. One typically aims to minimize a weighted sum of material volume, structure perimeter, and structure compliance (a measure of the inverse structure stiffness). This task is not only of interest for optimal designs in engineering, but e.g. also helps to better understand biological structures. The high nonconvexity of the problem makes it impossible to find the globally optimal design; if in addition the weight of the perimeter is chosen small, very fine material structures are optimal that cannot even be resolved numerically. However, one can prove an energy scaling law that describes how the minimum of the objective functional scales with the model parameters. Part of such a proof involves the construction of a near-optimal design, which typically exhibits fine-scale structure in the form of branching and which gives an idea of how optimal geometries look like. (Joint with Robert Kohn)

## Rong Ge : Learning Two-Layer Neural Networks with Symmetric Inputs

- Applied Math and Analysis ( 118 Views )Deep learning has been extremely successful in practice. However, existing guarantees for learning neural networks are limited even when the network has only two layers - they require strong assumptions either on the input distribution or on the norm of the weight vectors. In this talk we give a new algorithm that is guaranteed to learn a two-layer neural network under much milder assumptions on the input distribution. Our algorithms works whenever the input distribution is symmetric - which means two inputs $x$ and $-x$ have the same probability.

Based on joint work with Rohith Kuditipudi, Zhize Li and Xiang Wang

## Massimo Fornasier : The projection method for dynamical systems and kinetic equations modelling interacting agents in high-dimension

- Applied Math and Analysis ( 113 Views )In this talk we explore how concepts of high-dimensional data compression via random projections onto lower-dimensional spaces can be applied for tractable simulation of certain dynamical systems modeling complex interactions. In such systems, one has to deal with a large number of agents (typically millions) in spaces of parameters describing each agent of high dimension (thousands or more). Even with todayÂ?s powerful computers, numerical simulations of such systems are prohibitively expensive. We propose an approach for the simulation of dynamical systems governed by functions of adjacency matrices in high dimension, by random projections via Johnson-Lindenstrauss embeddings, and recovery by compressed sensing techniques. We show how these concepts can be generalized to work for associated kinetic equations, by addressing the phenomenon of the delayed curse of dimension, known in information-based complexity for optimal measure quantization in high dimension. This is a joint work with Jan Haskovec and Jan Vybiral.

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## Katie Newhall : The Causes of Metastability and Their Effects on Transition Times

- Applied Math and Analysis ( 110 Views )Many experimental systems can spend extended periods of time relative to their natural time scale in localized regions of phase space, transiting infrequently between them. This display of metastability can arise in stochastically driven systems due to the presence of large energy barriers, or in deterministic systems due to the presence of narrow passages in phase space. To investigate metastability in these different cases, we take the Langevin equation and determine the effects of small damping, small noise, and dimensionality on the dynamics and mean transition time. In finite dimensions, we show the limit of small noise and small damping do not interchange. In the limit of infinite dimensions, we argue the equivalence of the finitely-damped system and the zero-damped infinite energy Hamiltonian system.

## Sung Ha Kang : Efficient methods for curvature based variational imaging models

- Applied Math and Analysis ( 109 Views )Starting with an introduction to multiphase image segmentation, this talk will focus on inpainting and illusory contour using variational models with curvature terms. Recent developments of fast algorithms, based on operator splitting, augmented Lagrangian, and alternating minimization, enabled us to efficiently solve functional with higher order terms. Main ideas of the models and algorithms, some analysis and numerical results will be presented.

## Ravi Srinivasan : Kinetic theory for shock clustering and Burgers turbulence

- Applied Math and Analysis ( 105 Views )A remarkable model of stochastic coalescence arises from considering shock statistics in scalar conservation laws with random initial data. While originally rooted in the study of Burgers turbulence, the model has deep connections to statistics, kinetic theory, random matrices, and completely integrable systems. The evolution takes the form of a Lax pair which, in addition to yielding interesting conserved quantities, admits some rather intriguing exact solutions. We will describe several distinct derivations for the evolution equation and, time-permitting, discuss properties of the corresponding kinetic system. This talk consists of joint work with Govind Menon (Brown).

## Peng Chen : Sparse Quadrature for High-Dimensional Integration with Gaussian Measure: Breaking the Curse of Dimensionality

- Applied Math and Analysis ( 56 Views )High-dimensional integration problems, which suffer from curse of dimensionality, are faced in many computational applications, such as uncertainty quantification, Bayesian inverse problems, PDE-constrained stochastic optimization, computational finance, etc. Recent work has made great progress in theories and algorithms for treating uniform measure. However, high-dimensional integration with Gaussian measure, commonly used in these fields, is less studied. In this talk I will present a sparse quadrature that breaks the curse of dimensionality for high/infinite-dimensional integration with Gaussian measure. Both a priori and a goal-oriented adaptive construction algorithms for the sparse quadrature are proposed by tensorization of univariate quadratures in a carefully selected (admissible) index set. Several univariate quadrature rules, including Gauss--Hermite, transformed Gauss--Kronrod--Patterson, and Genz--Keister are investigated. The best-$N$ term algebraic convergence rate $N^{-s}$is obtained under certain assumption on the regularity of the parametric map with respect to the Gaussian distributed parameters. The rate $s$ is shown to be dependent only on a sparsity parameter that controls the regularity and independent of the number of active parameter dimensions. Examples of nonlinear parametric functions and parametric partial differential equations (PDE) are provided to illustrate the regularity assumption. Finally, I will present numerical experiments on the integration of parametric function, parametric PDE, and parametric Bayesian inversion for the demonstration of the dimension-independent convergence of the sparse quadrature errors. The convergence is shown to be much faster than that of Monte Carlo quadrature errors for the test problems with sufficient sparsity.

## Thomas Y. Hou : Singularity Formation in 3-D Vortex Sheets

- Applied Math and Analysis ( 30 Views )One of the classical examples of hydrodynamic instability occurs when two fluids are separated by a free surface across which the tangential velocity has a jump discontinuity. This is called Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is a fundamental instability of incompressible fluid flow at high Reynolds number. The idealization of a shear layered flow as a vortex sheet separating two regions of potential flow has often been used as a model to study mixing properties, boundary layers and coherent structures of fluids. In a joint work with G. Hu and P. Zhang, we study the singularity of 3-D vortex sheets using a new approach. First, we derive a leading order approximation to the boundary integral equation governing the 3-D vortex sheet. This leading order equation captures the most singular contribution of the integral equation. Moreover, after applying a transformation to the physical variables, we found that this leading order 3-D vortex sheet equation de-generates into a two-dimensional vortex sheet equation in the direction of the tangential velocity jump. This rather surprising result confirms that the tangential velocity jump is the physical driving force of the vortex sheet singularities. It also shows that the singularity type of the three-dimensional problem is similar to that of the two-dimensional problem. Detailed numerical study will be provided to support the analytical results, and to reveal the generic form and the three-dimensional nature of the vortex sheet singularity.