public 01:34:32

Ioannis Kevrekidis : No Equations, No Variables, No Parameters, No Space, No Time -- Data, and the Crystal Ball Modeling of Complex/Multiscale Systems

  -   Applied Math and Analysis ( 183 Views )

Obtaining predictive dynamical equations from data lies at the heart of science and engineering modeling, and is the linchpin of our technology. In mathematical modeling one typically progresses from observations of the world (and some serious thinking!) first to selection of variables, then to equations for a model, and finally to the analysis of the model to make predictions. Good mathematical models give good predictions (and inaccurate ones do not) --- but the computational tools for analyzing them are the same: algorithms that are typically operating on closed form equations.
While the skeleton of the process remains the same, today we witness the development of mathematical techniques that operate directly on observations --- data, and appear to circumvent the serious thinking that goes into selecting variables and parameters and deriving accurate equations. The process then may appear to the user a little like making predictions by "looking into a crystal ball". Yet the "serious thinking" is still there and uses the same --- and some new --- mathematics: it goes into building algorithms that "jump directly" from data to the analysis of the model (which is now not available in closed form) so as to make predictions. Our work here presents a couple of efforts that illustrate this "new" path from data to predictions. It really is the same old path, but it is traveled by new means.

public 01:34:51

Bruce Pitman : CANCELLED

  -   Applied Math and Analysis ( 179 Views )


public 01:14:39

Elizabeth L. Bouzarth : Modeling Biologically Inspired Fluid Flow Using RegularizedSingularities and Spectral Deferred Correction Methods

  -   Applied Math and Analysis ( 156 Views )

The motion of primary nodal cilia present in embryonic development resembles that of a precessing rod. Implementing regularized singularities to model this fluid flow numerically simulates a situation for which colleagues have exact mathematical solutions and experimentalists have corresponding laboratory studies on both the micro- and macro-scales. Stokeslets are fundamental solutions to the Stokes equations, which act as external point forces when placed in a fluid. By strategically distributing regularized Stokeslets in a fluid domain to mimic an immersed boundary (e.g., cilium), one can compute the velocity and trajectory of the fluid at any point of interest. The simulation can be adapted to a variety of situations including passive tracers, rigid bodies and numerous rod structures in a fluid flow generated by a rod, either rotating around its center or its tip, near a plane. The exact solution allows for careful error analysis and the experimental studies provide new applications for the numerical model. Spectral deferred correction methods are used to alleviate time stepping restrictions in trajectory calculations. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons to theory and experiment have shown that a numerical simulation of this nature can generate insight into fluid systems that are too complicated to fully understand via experiment or exact numerical solution independently.

public 01:14:39

Ralph Smith : Model Development and Control Design for High Performance Nonlinear Smart Material Systems

  -   Applied Math and Analysis ( 152 Views )

High performance transducers utilizing piezoceramic, electrostrictive, magnetostrictive or shape memory elements offer novel control capabilities in applications ranging from flow control to precision placement for nanoconstruction. To achieve the full potential of these materials, however, models, numerical methods and control designs which accommodate the constitutive nonlinearities and hysteresis inherent to the compounds must be employed. Furthermore, it is advantageous to consider material characterization, model development, numerical approximation, and control design in concert to fully exploit the novel sensor and actuator capabilities of these materials in coupled systems.

In this presentation, the speaker will discuss recent advances in the development of model-based control strategies for high performance smart material systems. The presentation will focus on the development of unified nonlinear hysteresis models, inverse compensators, reduced-order approximation techniques, and nonlinear control strategies for high precision or high drive regimes. The range for which linear models and control methods are applicable will also be outlined. Examples will be drawn from problems arising in structural acoustics, high speed milling, deformable mirror design, artificial muscle development, tendon design to minimize earthquake damage, and atomic force microscopy.

public 01:14:47

Per-Gunnar Martinsson : Fast numerical methods for solving linear PDEs

  -   Applied Math and Analysis ( 144 Views )

Linear boundary value problems occur ubiquitously in many areas of science and engineering, and the cost of computing approximate solutions to such equations is often what determines which problems can, and which cannot, be modelled computationally. Due to advances in the last few decades (multigrid, FFT, fast multipole methods, etc), we today have at our disposal numerical methods for most linear boundary value problems that are "fast" in the sense that their computational cost grows almost linearly with problem size. Most existing "fast" schemes are based on iterative techniques in which a sequence of incrementally more accurate solutions is constructed. In contrast, we propose the use of recently developed methods that are capable of directly inverting large systems of linear equations in almost linear time. Such "fast direct methods" have several advantages over existing iterative methods: (1) Dramatic speed-ups in applications involving the repeated solution of similar problems (e.g. optimal design, molecular dynamics). (2) The ability to solve inherently ill-conditioned problems (such as scattering problems) without the use of custom designed preconditioners. (3) The ability to construct spectral decompositions of differential and integral operators. (4) Improved robustness and stability. In the talk, we will also describe how randomized sampling can be used to rapidly and accurately construct low rank approximations to matrices. The cost of constructing a rank k approximation to an m x n matrix A for which an O(m+n) matrix-vector multiplication scheme is available is O((m+n)*k). This cost is the same as that of Lanczos, but the randomized scheme is significantly more robust. For a general matrix A, the cost of the randomized scheme is O(m*n*log(k)), which should be compared to the O(m*n*k) cost of existing deterministic methods.