## Dick Hain : Hecke actions on loops and periods of iterated itegrals of modular forms

- Number Theory ( 286 Views )Hecke operators act on many invariants associated to modular curves and their generalizations. For example, they act on modular forms and on cohomology groups of modular curves. In each of these cases, they generate a semi-simple, commutative algebra. In the first part of this talk, I will recall (in friendly, elementary, geometric terms) what Hecke operators are and how they act on the standard invariants. I will then show that they also act on loops in modular curves (aka, conjugacy classes in modular groups). In this case, the Hecke operators generate a non-commutative subalgebra of the vector space generated by the conjugacy classes, which leads to a very natural non-commutative generalization of the classical Hecke algebra. In the second part of the talk will discuss why one might want do construct such a Hecke action. As a prelude to this, I will explain why this Hecke action commutes with the natural action of the absolute Galois group after taking profinite completions. And, in the unlikely event that I have sufficient time, I will also explain how (after taking the appropriate completion) this Hecke action is also compatible with Hodge theory.

## Jonathan P. Wang : Derived Satake equivalence for Godement-Jacquet monoids

- Number Theory ( 248 Views )Godement-Jacquet use the Schwartz space of n-by-n matrices to construct the standard L-function for GL_n. Ben-Zvi, Sakellaridis and Venkatesh conjecture that the local unramified part of this theory can be categorified to an equivalence between an 'analytic' category of constructible sheaves and a 'spectral' category of dg modules. In this talk I will explain the proof of this equivalence and some of its properties. I will also discuss connections to conjectures of Braverman-Kazhdan on constructions of general automorphic L-functions. This is joint work with Tsao-Hsien Chen (in preparation).

## Michal Zydor : Relative trace formula of Jacquet-Rallis, recent progress

- Number Theory ( 173 Views )I will discuss the relative trace formula approach to the global Gan-Gross-Prasad conjectures for unitary groups. The focus will be on the spectral side. I will present the various terms that appear in the spectral development of the relative trace formula and discuss what is still missing. This is a joint work with Pierre-Henri Chaudouard.

## Mason A. Porter : Communities in Networks

- Number Theory ( 162 Views )Networks (graphs) arise pervasively in biology, physics, technology, the social sciences, and myriad other areas. They typically exhibit a complicated mixture of random and structured features. Over the past several years, my collaborators and I have conducted several studies of cohesive mesoscopic structures known as "communities," which consist of groups of nodes that are closely related. In this talk, I will discuss the idea of network community structure and discuss results my collaborators and I have obtained using networks constructed from data such as Facebook friendships, Congressional committee assignments and voting/legislation cosponsorship, and NCAA football schedules. arXiv.org:0902.3788

## Stuart Kauffman : The Open Universe

- Number Theory ( 125 Views )Laplace gave the simplest early statement of reductionism. His Demon, if supplied with the positions and momenta of all the particles in the universe, could, using Newton's laws, calculate the entire future and past of the universe. Add fields, quantum mechanics, and General Relativity and you have, roughly, modern physics. There are four features to Laplace's reductionism: (I) Everything that happens is deterministic, called into question a century later by quantum mechanics and the familiar Copenhagen interpretation and Born rule. (ii) All that is ontologically real are "nothing but" particles in motion. (iii) All that happens in the universe is describable by universal laws. (iv) There exists at least one language able to describe all of reality. Quantum mechanics is evidence against (i). I will argue that biological evolution, the coming into existence in the universe of hearts and humming birds co-evolving with the flowers that feed them and that they pollenate, cannot be deduced or simulated from the basic laws of physics. In Weinberg's phrase, they are not entailed by the laws of physics. I will then claim that at levels above the atom, the universe will never make all possible proteins length 200 amino acids, all possible organisms, or all possible social systems. The universe is indefinitely open upwards in complexity. More, proteins, organisms, and social systems are ontologically real, not just particles in motion. Most radically, I will contest (iii). I will try to show that we cannot pre-state Darwinian pre-adaptations, where a pre-adaptation is a feature of an organism of no use in the current selective environment, but of use in a different environment, hence selected for a novel function. Swim bladders are an example. Let me define the "adjacent possible" of the biosphere. Once there were the lung fish that gave rise to swim bladders, swim bladders were in the adjacent possible of the biosphere. Before there were multi-celled organisms, swim bladders were not in the adjacent possible of the biosphere. What I am claiming is that we cannot pre-state the adjacent possible of the biosphere. How could we pre-state the selective conditions? How could we pre-specify the features of one or several organisms that might become pre-adaptations? How could we know that we had completed the list? The implications are profound, if true. First, we can make no probability statement about pre-adaptations, for we do not know the sample space, so can formulate no probability measure. Most critically, if a natural law is a compact description before hand and afterward of the regularities of a process, then there can be no natural law sufficient to describe the emergence of swim bladders. Thus, the unfolding of the universe is partially lawless! This contradicts our settled convictions since Descartes, Galileo, Newton, Einstein and SchrÃ¶dinger. It says that (iii) is false. In place of law is a ceaseless creativity, a self consistent self construction of the biosphere, the economy, our cultures, partially beyond law. Were reductionism sufficient, the existence of swim bladders in the universe would be entailed by physical law, hence "explained". But it appears that physics, as stated, is not sufficient in its reductionist version. Then we must explain the existence in the universe of swim bladders and humming birds pollenating flowers that feed them, on some different ground. We need a post-reductionist science. Autocatalytic mutualisms of organisms, the biosphere, and much of the economy, may be part of the explanation we seek. In turn this raises profound questions about how causal systems can coordinate their behaviors, let alone the role of energy, work, power, power efficiency, in the self-consistent construction of a biosphere. There is a lot to think about.

## Emmanuel J. Candes : Exact Matrix Completion by Convex Optimization Theory and Algorithms

- Number Theory ( 105 Views )The recovery of a data matrix from a sampling of its entries is a problem of considerable practical interest. In partially filled out surveys, for instance, we would like to infer the many missing entries. In the area of recommender systems, users submit ratings on a subset of entries in a database, and the vendor provides recommendations based on the user's preferences. Because users only rate a few items, we would like to infer their preference for unrated items (the famous Netflix problem). Formally, suppose that we observe m entries selected uniformly at random from a matrix. Can we complete the matrix and recover the entries that we have not seen? Surprisingly, one can recover low-rank matrices exactly from what appear to be highly incomplete sets of sampled entries; that is, from a minimally sampled set of entries. Further, perfect recovery is possible by solving a simple convex optimization program, namely, a convenient semi-definite program. We show that our methods are optimal and succeed as soon as recovery is possible by any method whatsoever. Time permitting, we will also present a very efficient algorithm based on iterative singular value thresholding, which can complete matrices with about a billion entries in a matter of minutes on a personal computer.

## Abhishek Parab : Absolute convergence of the twisted Arthur-Selberg trace formula

- Number Theory ( 100 Views )We show that the distributions occurring in the geometric and spectral side of the twisted Arthur-Selberg trace formula extend to non-compactly supported test functions. The geometric assertion is modulo a hypothesis on root systems proven among other cases, when the group is split. This result extends the work of Finis-Lapid (and Muller, spectral side) in the non-twisted setting. In the end, we will give an application towards residues of Rankin-Selberg L-functions suggested by J. Getz.