Joseph Rabinoff : From Diophantine equations to p-adic analytic geometry
- Presentations ( 254 Views )A Diophantine equation is a polynomial equation in several variables, generally with integer coefficients, like x^{3} + y^{3} = z^{3}. Provably finding all integer solutions of a Diophantine equation is a storied mathematical problem that is easy to state and notoriously difficult to solve. The method of Chabauty--Coleman is one particularly successful technique for ruling out extraneous solutions of a certain class of Diophantine equations. The method is p-adic in nature, and involves producing p-adic analytic functions that vanish on all integer-valued solutions. I will discuss work with Katz and Zureick-Brown on finding uniform bounds on the number of rational points on a curve of fixed genus, defined over a number field, subject to a (conjecturally weak) restriction on its Jacobian. The same technique also makes progress on the uniform Manin-Mumford conjecture on the size of torsion packets on curves of fixed genus.
Steven Sam : Noetherianity in representation theory
- Presentations ( 242 Views )Abstract: Representation stability is an exciting new area that combines ideas from commutative algebra and representation theory. The meta-idea is to combine a sequence of objects together using some newly defined algebraic structure, and then to translate abstract properties about this structure to concrete properties about the original object of study. Finite generation is a particularly important property, which translates to the existence of bounds on algebraic invariants, or some predictable behavior. I'll discuss some examples coming from topology (configuration spaces) and algebraic geometry (secant varieties).
Lan-Hsuan Huang : Positive mass theorems and scalar curvature problems
- Presentations ( 219 Views )More than 30 years ago, Schoen-Yau and later Witten made major breakthroughs in proving the positive mass theorem. It has become one of the most important theorems in general relativity and differential geometry. In the first part of the talk, I will introduce the positive mass theorem and present our recent work that extends the classical three-dimensional results to higher dimensions. In the second part, I will discuss how the observation from general relativity enables us to solve classical geometric problems related to the scalar curvature.
Justin Curry : Studying Stratified Maps a la MacPherson
- Presentations ( 217 Views )This talk is motivated by the question "Given a stratified map, how are path components of the fiber organized?" Studying path components necessitates cosheaves, but the stratified assumption provides an elegant combinatorial description using MacPherson's entrance path category, which also controls the associated Leray sheaves. One of the goals of this talk will be to provide a self-contained exposition of these ideas, using a minimal amount of mathematical background. The talk will follow loosely a recent paper with Amit Patel, which is available on the arXiv as http://arxiv.org/abs/1603.01587 Connections with applied topology will also be described.
Matthias Heymann : Computing maximum likelihood paths of rare transition events, and applications to synthetic biology
- Presentations ( 177 Views )Dynamical systems with small noise (e.g. SDEs) allow for rare transitions from one stable state into another that would not be possible without the presence of noise. Large deviation theory provides the means to analyze both the frequency of these transitions and the maximum likelihood transition path. The key object for the determination of both is the quasipotential, V(x,y) = inf S_T(phi), where S_T(phi) is the action functional associated to the system, and where the infimum is taken over all T>0 and all paths phi:[0,T]->R^n leading from x to y. The numerical evaluation of V(x,y) however is made difficult by the fact that in most cases of interest no minimizer exists.
In my work I prove an alternative geometric formulation of V(x,y) that resolves this issue by introducing an action on the space of curves ( i.e. this action is independent of the parametrization of phi). In this formulation, a minimizer exists, and we use it to build a flexible algorithm (the geometric minimum action method, gMAM) for finding the maximum likelihood transition curve.
In one application I show how the gMAM can be useful in the newly emerging field of synthetic biology: We propose a method to identify the sources of instabilities in (genetic) networks.
This work was done in collaboration with my adviser Eric Vanden-Eijnden and is the core of my PhD thesis at NYU.
Roman Vershynin : Randomness in functional analysis: towards universality
- Presentations ( 174 Views )The probabilistic method has redefined functional analysis in high dimensions. Random spaces and operators are to analysis what random graphs are to combinatorics. They provide a wealth of examples that are otherwise hard to construct, suggest what situations we should view as typical, and they have far-reaching applications, most notably in convex geometry and computer science. With the increase of our knowledge about random structures we begin to wonder about their universality. Is there a limiting picture as the dimension increases to infinity? Is this picture unique and independent of the distribution? What are deterministic implications of probabilistic methods? This talk will survey progress on some of these problems, in particular a proof of the conjecture of Von Neumann and Goldstine on random operators and connections to the Littlewood-Offord problem in additive combinatorics.
Patrick Brosnan : Essential dimension and algebraic stacks
- Presentations ( 142 Views )Essential dimension is an invariant introduced by Buhler and Reichstein to measure how many parameters are needed to define an algebraic object such as a field extension or an algebraic curve over a field. I will describe joint work with Vistoli and Reichstein which studies essential dimension in the case where the algebraic objects are represented by a stack. I will also give examples of applications in the theory of quadratic forms.