## Sam Stechmann : Clouds, climate, and extreme precipitation events: Asymptotics and stochastic

- Presentations ( 298 Views )Clouds and precipitation are among the most challenging aspects of weather and climate prediction. Moreover, our mathematical and physical understanding of clouds is far behind our understanding of a "dry" atmospheric where water vapor is neglected. In this talk, in working toward overcoming these challenges, we present new results on clouds and precipitation from two perspectives: first, in terms of the partial differential equations (PDEs) for atmospheric fluid dynamics, and second, in terms of stochastic models. A new asymptotic limit will be described, and it leads to new PDEs for a precipitating version of the quasi-geostrophic equations, now including phase changes of water. Also, a new energy will be presented for an atmosphere with phase changes, and it provides a generalization of the quadratic energy of a "dry" atmosphere. Finally, it will be shown that the statistics of clouds and precipitation can be described by stochastic differential equations and stochastic PDEs. As one application, it will be shown that, under global warming, the most significant change in precipitation statistics is seen in the largest events -- which become even larger and more probable -- and the distribution of event sizes conforms to the stochastic models.

## Florian Naef : A real description of brackets and cobrackets in string topology

- Presentations ( 289 Views )Let M be a manifold with non-vanishing vectorfield. The homology of the space of loops in M carries a natural Lie bialgebra structure described by Sullivan as string topology operations. If M is a surface, these operations where originally defined by Goldman and Turaev. We study formal descriptions of these Lie bialgebras. More precisely, for surfaces these Lie bialgebras are formal in the sense that they are isomorphic (after completion) to their algebraic analogues (Schedler's necklace Lie bialgebras) built from the homology of the surface. For higher dimensional manifolds we give a similar description that turns out to depend on the Chern-Simons partition function.

This talk is based on joint work with A. Alekseev, N. Kawazumi, Y. Kuno and T. Willwacher.

## Pengzi Miao : Remarks on a Scalar Curvature Rigidity Theorem of Brendle and Marques

- Presentations ( 256 Views )In a recent paper, Brendle and Marques proved that on certain geodesic balls in the standard hemisphere, there does not exist small metric deformations of the standard metric which increase the scalar curvature in the interior and the mean curvature on the boundary. Such a result was motivated by the Euclidean and Hyperbolic positive mass theorems. More interestingly, this result is false on the hemisphere itself, which is shown by Brendle-Marques-Neves' remarkable counter example to the Min-Oo's conjecture. In this talk, we provide a few remarks to Brendle and Marques' theorem. We show that their theorem remains valid on slightly larger geodesic balls; it also holds on certain convex domains; moreover, with a volume constraint imposed, a variation of their theorem holds on the hemisphere. This is a joint work with Luen-Fai Tam.

## Wolfgang Gaim : Semiclassical approximations to quantum mechanical equilibrium distributions

- Presentations ( 227 Views )In his 1932 paper, Eugene Wigner introduced the now famous Wigner function in order to compute quantum corrections to classical equilibrium distributions. We show how to extend this program and compute semiclassical approximations to quantum mechanical equilibrium distributions for slow, semiclassical degrees of freedom coupled to fast, quantum mechanical degrees of freedom. The main examples are molecules and electrons in crystalline solids. Where we will focus on the thermodynamics of the Hofstadter model as an application of the general results. The semiclassical formulas contain, in addition to quantum corrections similar to those of Wigner, also modifications of the classical Hamiltonian system used in the approximation: The classical energy and the Liouville measure on classical phase space turn out to have non-trivial-expansions in the semiclassical parameter. This talk is based on joint work with Stefan Teufel.

## Robert Ghrist : Sheaves and Sensors

- Presentations ( 224 Views )This work is motivated by a fundamental problem in sensor networks -- the need to aggregate redundant sensor data across a network. We focus on a simple problem of enumerating targets with a network of sensors that can detect nearby targets, but cannot identify or localize them. We show a clear, clean relationship between this problem and the topology of constructable sheaves. In particular, an integration theory from sheaf theory that uses Euler characteristic as a measure provides a computable, robust, and powerful tool for data aggregation.

## Lan-Hsuan Huang : Positive mass theorems and scalar curvature problems

- Presentations ( 219 Views )More than 30 years ago, Schoen-Yau and later Witten made major breakthroughs in proving the positive mass theorem. It has become one of the most important theorems in general relativity and differential geometry. In the first part of the talk, I will introduce the positive mass theorem and present our recent work that extends the classical three-dimensional results to higher dimensions. In the second part, I will discuss how the observation from general relativity enables us to solve classical geometric problems related to the scalar curvature.

## Ellen Eischen : L-functions, congruences, and applications

- Presentations ( 179 Views )L-functions, certain meromorphic functions that include the Riemann zeta-function, encode important number-theoretic information. The first part of this talk will focus on some striking properties of special values of the Riemann zeta-function and certain other L-functions (namely, congruences modulo powers of a prime number). In the second part of the talk, I will introduce tools that are useful for studying these congruences. These tools have applications not only to number theory, but also to homotopy theory. This will be a colloquium style talk, intended for a broad audience.

## Jason Mireles-James : Adaptive Set-Oriented Algorithms for Conservative Systems

- Presentations ( 143 Views )We describe an automatic chaos verification scheme based on set oriented numerical methods, which is especially well suited to the study of area and volume preserving diffeomorphisms. The novel feature of the scheme is an iterative algorithm for approximating connecting orbits between collections of hyperbolic fixed and periodic points with greater and greater accuracy. The algorithm is geometric rather than graph theoretic in nature and, unlike existing methods, does not require the computation of chain recurrent sets. We give several example computations in dimension two and three.

## Allan Sly : Mixing in Time and Space

- Presentations ( 131 Views )For Markov random fields temporal mixing, the time it takes for the Glauber dynamics to approach it's stationary distribution, is closely related to phase transitions in the spatial mixing properties of the measure such as uniqueness and the reconstruction problem. Such questions connect ideas from probability, statistical physics and theoretical computer science. I will survey some recent progress in understanding the mixing time of the Glauber dynamics as well as related results on spatial mixing. Partially based on joint work with Elchanan Mossel

## Duncan Dauvergne : Geodesic networks in random geometry

- Presentations ( 51 Views )The directed landscape is a random directed metric on the plane that is the scaling limit for models in the KPZ universality class. In this metric, typical pairs of points are connected by a unique geodesic. However, certain exceptional pairs are connected by more exotic geodesic networks. The goal of this talk is to describe a full classification for these exceptional pairs. I will also discuss some connections with other models of random geometry.