## Doug Durian : Growth of dynamical heterogeneity in dense granular materials on approach to jamming

- Nonlinear and Complex Systems ( 176 Views )The physics of granular flow is of widespread practical and fundamental interest, and is also important in geology and astrophysics. One challenge to understanding and controlling behavior is that the mechanical response is nonlinear, with a forcing threshold below which the medium is static and above which it flows freely. Furthermore, just above threshold the response may be intermittent even though the forcing is steady. Two familiar examples are avalanches on a heap and clogging in a silo. Another example is dynamical heterogeneities for systems brought close to jamming, where intermediate-time motion is correlated in the form of intermitted string-like swirls. This will be reviewed in the context of glassy liquids and colloids, and more deeply illustrated with experiments on three different granular systems. This includes air-fluidized beads, where jamming is approached by density and airspeed; granular heap flow, where jamming is approached by depth from the free surface; and dense suspensions of NIPA beads, where jamming is approached by both density and shear rate. Emphasis will be given to measurement and analysis methods for quantifying heterogeneities, as well as the scaling of the size of heterogeneities with distance to jamming.

## Xuanhe Zhao : Engineering and Physics of Electroactive Polymers: From Micropatterning to Taylor Cone

- Nonlinear and Complex Systems ( 175 Views )As a voltage is applied on a layer of an electroactive polymer, the polymer can reduce in thickness and expand in area, giving an actuation strain over 100%. This talk will discuss the large deformation, instabilities, and energy conversion of electroactive polymers. We will particularly focus on new phenomena of electroactive polymers recently observed at Duke Soft Active Materials Laboratory. Interestingly, these phenomena are closely related to daily-life issues such as skin wrinkling and creasing, physical topics such as the Taylor-Cone instability, and engineering applications such as high-energy-density capacitors and anti-biofouling.

## Shane Ross : Geometric and probabilistic descriptions of chaotic phase space transport

- Nonlinear and Complex Systems ( 178 Views )Several geometric and probabilistic methods for studying chaotic phase space transport have been developed and fruitfully applied to diverse areas from orbital mechanics to fluid mechanics and beyond. Increasingly, systems of interest are determined not by analytically defined model systems, but by data from experiments or large-scale simulations. This emphasis on real-world systems sharpens our focus on those features of phase space transport in finite-time systems which seem robust, leading to the consideration of not only invariant manifolds and invariant manifold-like objects, but also their connection with concepts such as symbolic dynamics, chaos, coherent sets, and optimal control. We will highlight some recent applications to areas such as spacecraft trajectories, microfluidic mixing, ship capsize prediction, and biological invasions.

## Patrick Charbonneau : Glass transition and random close packing in 3+ dimensions

- Nonlinear and Complex Systems ( 162 Views )Motivated by a recently identified severe discrepancy between a static and a dynamic theory of glasses, we numerically investigate the behavior of dense hard spheres in spatial dimensions 3 to 12. Our results are consistent with the static replica theory, but disagree with the dynamic mode- coupling theory, indicating that key ingredients of high-dimensional physics are missing from the latter. We also obtain numerical estimates of the random close packing density, which provides new insights into the mathematical problem of packing spheres in large dimension.

## Eric Corwin : Making a Two-Dimensional Thermal Ideal Gas by Shaking Your Breakfast

- Nonlinear and Complex Systems ( 68 Views )Active, driven systems as diverse as flocking starlings, swarming bacteria, and vibrating granular beds are by definition non-equilibrium, lacking a well defined thermal temperature that characterizes their dynamics. Because of this, the creation of a coherent non-equilibrium statistical mechanics has proven elusive, and it remains unclear whether, for any non-equilibrium system, a meaningful effective temperature exists. We have constructed an active, driven system of chaotic Faraday waves whose statistical mechanics, we find, are surprisingly simple, mimicking those of a thermal ideal gas. We use real-time tracking of a single floating probe, energy equipartition, and the Stokes-Einstein relation to define and measure a pseudotemperature, diffusion constant, and coefficient of viscous friction for a test particle in this pseudothermal gas. Because of its simplicity this system serves as a starting point for direct experimental investigation of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, much as the ideal gas is the starting point for equilibrium statistical mechanics.

## Frederic Lechenault : Experimental investigation of equilibration properties in model granular subsystems

- Nonlinear and Complex Systems ( 181 Views )We experimentally investigate the statistical features of the stationary states reached by two idealized granular liquids able to exchange volume. The system consists in two binary mixtures of the same number of soft disks, hence covering the same area, but with different surface properties. The disks sit on a horizontal air table, which provides ultra low friction at the cell bottom, and are separated by a mobile wall. Energy is injected in the system by means of an array of randomly activated coil bumpers standing as the edges of the cell. Due to the energy injection, the system acts like a slow liquid and eventually jams at higher packing fraction. We characterize the macroscopic states by studying the motion of the piston. We find that its average position is different from one half, and a non monotonic function of the overall packing fraction, which reveals the crucial role played by the surface properties in the corresponding density of states. We then study the bulk statistics of the packing fraction and the dynamics in each subsystem. We find that the measured quantities do not equilibrate, and become dramatically different as the overall packing fraction is increased beyond the onset of supercooling. However, the local fluctuations of the packing fraction are uniquely determined by its average, and hence independent of the interaction between disks. We then focus on the mixing properties of such an assembly. We characterize mixing by computing the topological entropy of the braids formed by the stationary trajectories of the grains at each pressure. This quantity is shown to be well defined, very sensitive to onset of supercooling, reflecting the dynamical arrest of the assembly, and to equilibrate in the two subsystems. Joint work with Karen Daniels.

## Marija Vucelja : A glass transition in population genetics: Emergence of clones in populations

- Nonlinear and Complex Systems ( 222 Views )The fields of evolution and population genetics are undergoing a renaissance, due to the abundance of sequencing data. On the other hand, the existing theories are often unable to explain the experimental findings. It is not clear what sets the time scales of evolution, whether for antibiotic resistance, an emergence of new animal species, or the diversification of life. The emerging picture of genetic evolution is that of a strongly interacting stochastic system with large numbers of components far from equilibrium. In this talk, I plan to focus on the clone competition and discuss the diversity of a random population that undergoes selection and recombination (sexual reproduction). Recombination reshuffles genetic material while selection amplifies the fittest genotypes. If recombination is more rapid than selection, a population consists of a diverse mixture of many genotypes, as is observed in many populations. In the opposite regime, selection can amplify individual genotypes into large clones, and the population reaches the so-called "clonal condensation". I hope to convince you that our work provides a qualitative explanation of clonal condensation. I will point out the similarity between clonal condensation and the freezing transition in the Random Energy Model of spin glasses. I will conclude with a summary of our present understanding of the clonal condensation phenomena and describe future directions and connections to statistical physics.

## Maciej Balajewicz : Nonlinear dimensionality reduction: from turbulent fluid flows to computational finance

- Nonlinear and Complex Systems ( 230 Views )The past several decades have seen an exponential growth of computer processing speed and memory capacity. The massive, complex simulations that run on supercomputers allow exploration of fields for which physical experiments are too impractical, hazardous, and/or costly. Accurate and efficient high-fidelity simulations are critical to many energy, defense, and health applications, e.g., global climate simulations, optimal design of wind systems for power generation, combustion simulations aimed at increasing fuel efficiency and reducing carbon emissions, simulations of heart fibrillation, and many others. Unfortunately, even with the aid of massively parallel next-generation computers, high-fidelity simulations are still too expensive for real-time and multi-query applications such as uncertainty quantification, design, optimization, and control. For this reason, interest in model order reduction continues to grow. In this talk I will summarize recent advances in nonlinear model reduction for high-Reynolds-number fluid flows, structural dynamics, and computational finance.

## Pedro Saenz : Spin lattices of walking droplets

- Nonlinear and Complex Systems ( 240 Views )Understanding the self-organization principles and collective dynamics of non-equilibrium matter remains a major challenge despite considerable progress over the last decade. In this talk, I will introduce a hydrodynamic analog system that allows us to investigate simultaneously the wave-mediated self-propulsion and interactions of effective spin degrees of freedom in inertial and rotating frames. Millimetric liquid droplets can walk across the surface of a vibrating fluid bath, self-propelled through a resonant interaction with their own guiding wave fields. A walking droplet, or `walker, may be trapped by a submerged circular well at the bottom of the fluid bath, leading to a clockwise or counter-clockwise angular motion centered at the well. When a collection of such wells is arranged in a 1D or 2D lattice geometry, a thin fluid layer between wells enables wave-mediated interactions between neighboring walkers. Through experiments and mathematical modeling, we demonstrate the spontaneous emergence of coherent droplet rotation dynamics for different types of lattices. For sufficiently strong pair-coupling, wave interactions between neighboring droplets may induce local spin flips leading to ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic order. Transitions between these two forms of order can be controlled by tuning the lattice parameters or by imposing a Coriolis force mimicking an external magnetic field. More generally, our results reveal a number of surprising parallels between the collective spin dynamics of wave-driven droplets and known phases of classical condensed matter systems. This suggests that our hydrodynamic analog system can be used to explore universal aspects of active matter and wave-mediated particle interactions, including spin-wave propagation and topologically protected dynamics far from equilibrium.

## Eckehard Schoell : Time-delayed feedback control - from nano to neuro

- Nonlinear and Complex Systems ( 203 Views )We review recent developments in the control of deterministic and stochastic nonlinear dynamics by time-delayed feedback methods [1]. We point out how to overcome the alleged odd number limitation for unstable periodic orbits, and discuss the control of complex chaotic or noise-induced space-time patterns. Our findings are applied to a selection of models ranging from semiconductor nanostructures, like resonant-tunneling diodes [2], to neural systems. [1] E. Sch{\"o}ll and H.G. Schuster (Eds.): Handbook of Chaos Control (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2008), second completely revised and enlarged edition. [2] E. Sch{\"o}ll, Nonlinear spatio-temporal dynamics and chaos in semiconductors (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001).

## Beatriz Seoane : The Gardner threshold: a border between two glasses

- Nonlinear and Complex Systems ( 211 Views )Glasses (aka amorphous solids) exhibit various anomalies when compared with crystals (aka ordered solids), for instance, they display enhanced transport, activated slow dynamics across energy barriers, excess vibrational modes with respect to Debye's theory (the so-called Boson Peak) or respond drastically to very small mechanical deformations. In this work, we identify the common, universal origin to these anomalies in a realistic, three-dimensional model of glasses. We show that in highly packed hard spheres, vibrations become highly correlated in space and time at a sharply defined threshold, which we call the "Gardner threshold". This work is deeply related with the last developments in the analytical theory of glasses, where the glass problem has been finally solved exactly in the artificial limit of infinite spatial dimensions. The analytical solution predicts the existence of a genuine phase transition (a Gardner phase transition) within the glass, separating the glass and the jamming transitions. In this work we, not only establish the relevance of the (remanent of the) Gardner transition for real glasses, but also characterize it using well-defined observables, including time-dependent quantities and spatial correlations, that should be experimentally measurable. See arxiv.org/abs/1511.04201

## Sreekanth Pannala : Multiscale/Multiphysics simulation strategy for gas-solids flow reactors

- Nonlinear and Complex Systems ( 154 Views )Gas-solids chemically reacting flows are omnipresent in many multiphase flow reactors in various industries like Chemical, Fossil and Nuclear. The challenging aspect of modeling these reacting flows are the wide range of both temporal and spatial scales encountered in these systems. The challenge is to accurately account and bridge (as seamlessly as possible) the length and time scales involved in the problem. First, the problem is introduced using biomass gasifier/pyrolyser and nuclear fuel coater with sample results as examples and provide an overview of the various models currently used at the different scales. In particular, the critical role of the granular dynamics in the overall performance of the reactors will be highlighted. The ongoing development of a multiphysics and multiscale mathematics framework for coupling various modeling methods over a range of scales will be presented. The development of a general wavelet-based multiscale methodology called compound wavelet matrix (CWM) for bridging spatial and temporal scales will be reported. Finally, the steps needed to generalize the current methodology for arbitrary heterogeneous chemically reacting flows or other applications involving multiscale/multiphysics coupling will be elucidated. The challenges and opportunities of employing these models for rapid deployment of clean energy solutions based on multiphase flow reactors to the market place will be discussed.

## Daniel Gauthier : Nonlinear stability analysis of a time-delay opto-electronic oscillator

- Nonlinear and Complex Systems ( 170 Views )I will describe some recent work on the dynamics of an optoelectronic time-delay oscillator that displays high-speed chaotic behavior with a flat, broad power spectrum. The chaotic state coexists with a linearly stable fixed point, which, when subjected to a finite-amplitude perturbation, loses stability initially via a periodic train of ultrafast pulses. A nonlinear stability analysis is required to understand the device dynamics. Through such an analysis, an approximate mapping is derived that does an excellent job of capturing the observed instability. The oscillator provides a simple device for fundamental studies of time-delay dynamical systems and can be used as a building block for ultrawide-band sensor networks. The results of this study recently appeared in print and can be found here: PRL The work is the part of Kristine Callan's PhD dissertation research and was in collaboration with Zheng Gao, Lucas Illing, and Eckehard Schoell.

## Daniella E. Raveh : Nonlinear Dynamics of Aeroelastic Airfoil Systems in Buffeting Flows

- Nonlinear and Complex Systems ( 151 Views )Transonic flows over airfoils at certain combinations of Mach numbers and steady mean angle of attack exhibit buffet; a phenomenon of large shock-wave oscillations due to flow separation and vortex shedding at a characteristic flow frequency. Buffet may occur even when the airfoil does not move. The seminar will present two recent studies of numerical simulations of an airfoil that a) undergoes prescribed harmonic oscillations, and b) is suspended by a spring in transonic buffeting flows. Both studies focus on the nonlinear interaction between the two oscillatory systems, namely the buffeting flow and the oscillating airfoil. Flow simulations of prescribed airfoil motions (using a Navier-Stokes turbulent flow solver) reveal a lock-in phenomenon. Certain combinations of amplitude and frequency of a prescribed airfoil oscillatory motion caused the buffet flow oscillations to lock into the prescribed frequency. The combinations of prescribed frequencies and amplitudes that cause lock-in present an .Arnold tongue. structure. There is a broad analogy between this flow phenomenon and the flow field of the Von Karman vortex street found behind a cylinder with the cylinder undergoing a prescribed oscillation. Flow simulations of an airfoil that is suspended on a spring reveal three distinct response characteristics, depending on the relationship of the elastic system.s natural frequency to the buffet frequency, and on the system.s mass ratio (the structural to fluid mass ratio). Elastic systems with natural frequencies that are lower than the buffet frequency exhibit a single-frequency response, with a frequency that is shifted form the buffet frequency towards the elastic natural frequency as the mass ratio is decreased (and the magnitude of the elastic response increases). On the other hand, an elastic system with a natural frequency that is the same as the buffet frequency exhibits resonance. Finally, elastic systems with natural frequencies that are higher than the buffet frequency exhibit a response with two distinct frequencies, that of the buffet and that of the elastic natural frequency. As long as the pitch amplitudes are small, the response is mostly at the buffet frequency. As the pitch amplitudes increase there is more power in the elastic natural frequency, and less in the buffet frequency. As the pitch amplitudes further grow, the response is in the elastic natural frequency solely, and the buffet frequency vanishes. To the best of the authors. knowledge the nonlinear dynamics of elastic systems in buffeting flows has not been reported previously. The authors are interested to learn whether similar phenomena are known in other research communities.

## Thomas Halsey : Dense granular flow

- Nonlinear and Complex Systems ( 148 Views )Friction plays a key role in controlling the rheology of dense granular flows. Ertas and Halsey, among others, have proposed that friction and inelasticity-enabled structures with a characteristic length scale in such flows can be directly linked to such rheologies, particularly that summarized in the Pouliquen flow rule. In dense flows, gear states in which all contacts roll without frictional sliding are naively possible below critical coordination numbers. We construct an explicit example of such a state in D=2; and show that organized shear can exist in this state only on scales l < d/I, where d is the grain size and I is the Inertial Number, characterizing the balance between inertial and pressure forces in the flow. Above this scale the packing is destabilized by centrifugal forces. Similar conclusions can be drawn in disordered packings of grains. We comment on the possible relationship between this length scale l and that which has been hypothesized to control the rheology.

## Sidney Nagel : Exploiting disorder for global response: independence of bond-level contributions

- Nonlinear and Complex Systems ( 213 Views )We are customarily taught to understand ordinary solids by considering perturbations about a perfect crystal. This approach becomes increasingly untenable as the amount of disorder in the solid increases; for a glass with no well-defined long-range order, a crystal is a terrible starting point for understanding the glasss rigidity or its excitations. Is there an alternative the opposite of a crystal where order, rather than disorder is the perturbation? Jamming is an alternate way of creating rigid solids that are qualitatively different from crystals. In a crystal with only one atom per unit cell, all atoms play the same role in producing the solid's global response to external perturbations. Jammed disordered materials are not similarly constrained and a new principle emerges: independence of bond-level response. Using networks where individual bonds can be successively removed, one can drive the overall system to different regimes of behavior. Consequently one can exploit disorder to achieve unique, varied, textured and tunable global response.

## Kyoung Jin Lee : A scary, yet interesting, scenario to the fibrillating heart

- Nonlinear and Complex Systems ( 213 Views )Alternans, a beat-to-beat temporal alternation in the sequence of heart beats, is a known precursor of the development of cardiac fibrillation, leading to sudden cardiac death. The equally important precursor of cardiac arrhythmias is the rotating spiral wave of electro-mechanical activity, or reentry, on the heart tissue. In this talk, I will show that these two seemingly different phenomena can have a remarkable relationship: In well controlled in-vitro tissue cultures, isotropic populations of rat ventricular myocytes sustaining a temporal rhythm of alternans can support period-2 oscillatory re-entries, and vice versa. These re-entries bear `line defects' across which the phase of local excitation slips rather abruptly by $2\pi$, when a full period-2 cycle of alternans completes in $4\pi$. In other words, the cells belonging to the line defects are period-1 oscillatory whereas all the others in the bulk medium are period-2 oscillatory. We also find that a slowly rotating line defect results in a quasi-periodic like oscillation in the bulk medium. Some key features of these phenomena can be well reproduced in computer simulations of a nonlinear reaction-diffusion model.

## Camille Scalliet : When is the Gardner transition relevant?

- Nonlinear and Complex Systems ( 289 Views )The idea that glasses can become marginally stable at a Gardner transition has attracted significant interest among the glass community. Yet, the situation is confusing: even at the theoretical level, renormalization group approaches provide contradictory results on whether the transition can exist in three dimensions. The Gardner transition was searched in only two experimental studies and few specific numerical models. These works lead to different conclusions for the existence of the transition, resulting in a poor understanding of the conditions under which a marginally stable phase can be observed. The very relevance of the Gardner transition for experimental glasses is at stake.

We study analytically and numerically the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen model. By changing external parameters, we continuously explore the phase diagram and regimes relevant to granular, colloidal, and molecular glasses. We revisit previous numerical studies and confirm their conclusions. We reconcile previous results and rationalise under which conditions a Gardner phase can be observed. We find that systems in the vicinity of a jamming transition possess a Gardner phase. Our findings confirm the relevance of a Gardner transition for colloidal and granular glasses, and encourage future experimental work in this direction. For molecular glasses, we find that no Gardner phase is present, but our studies reveal instead the presence of localised excitations presumably relevant for mechanical and vibrational properties of glasses.

## Zohar Nussinov : The detection of hidden structures in glasses and complex systems by multi-scale clustering

- Nonlinear and Complex Systems ( 170 Views )We will discuss the application of multi-scale graph theory based methods to the detection of general structures in networks, lattices, and amorphous physical systems. These methods enable the detection of the "natural" system structures on all scales. We specifically analyze lattices and spin systems with defects and various glass formers (including an analysis based on experimental data) to ascertain dominant structures at different temperatures. We will discuss general features of the phase diagram related to this analysis.

## Beatte Schmittmann : From asymmetric exclusion processes to protein synthesis

- Nonlinear and Complex Systems ( 173 Views )Asymmetric exclusion processes, with periodic or open boundaries, have been studied extensively in the mathematics and statistical physics communities, as paradigmatic models for stochastic particle transport far from equilibrium. Though significant progress was made only recently, the original model was actually introduced decades ago to model protein synthesis1. In this talk, I will describe recent efforts to develop a comprehensive theory for protein synthesis, building on asymmetric exclusion processes with extended objects, modeling ribosomes covering multiple codons. We discuss the effects of local hopping rates and ribosome size on density profiles and particle currents. The latter translate directly into synthesis rates for the corresponding protein. Some intriguing results for real genes will be presented. 1C.T. MacDonald, J.H. Gibbs and A.C. Pipkin, Kinetics of biopolymerization on nucleic acid templates, Biopolymers,6 1 (1968); C.T. MacDonald and J.H. Gibbs, Concerning the kinetics of polypeptide synthesis on polyribosomes, Biopolymers, 7, 707, (1969).

## Tom Solomon : Front propagation and pattern formation in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction

- Nonlinear and Complex Systems ( 196 Views )We present experiments on pattern formation and front propagation in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) chemical reaction in flowing systems with chaotic advection. The flow is a chain of alternating vortices that oscillate and/or drift in the lateral direction. Mixing between the vortices is chaotic in this flow with either (enhanced) diffusive or superdiffusive transport. Experiments with the excitable BZ reaction are used to study the motion of reaction fronts in this system. If the vortices oscillates laterally, reaction fronts typically mode-lock to the external forcing. If the vortices drift with constant velocity, fronts typically pin to the leading vortex, remaining motionless in a reference frame that drifts with the vortices. Experiments with the oscillatory BZ reaction are used to study synchronization of a network of oscillators by chaotic mixing. We find that the system is globally-synchronized only if the long-range transport is superdiffusive, characterized by Levy flight trajectories. Time-permitting, we will also present results of experiments on chemical fronts and patterns in a two-dimensional array of vortices.

## Chris Wiggins : Learning Networks from Biology, Learning Biology from Networks

- Nonlinear and Complex Systems ( 169 Views )Both the 'reverse engineering' of biological networks (for example, by integrating sequence data and expression data) and the analysis of their underlying design (by revealing the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for the resulting topologies) can be re-cast as problems in machine learning: learning an accurate prediction function from high-dimensional data. In the case of inferring biological networks, predicting up- or down- regulation of genes allows us to learn ab intio the transcription factor binding sites (or `motifs') and to generate a predictive model of transcriptional regulation. In the case of inferring evolutionary designs, quantitative, unambiguous model validation can be performed, clarifying which of several possible theoretical models of how biological networks evolve might best (or worst) describe real-world networks. In either case, by taking a machine learning approach, we statistically validate the models both on held-out data and via randomizations of the original dataset to assess statistical significance. By allowing the data to reveal which features are the most important (based on predictive power rather than overabundance relative to an assumed null model) we learn models which are both statically validated and biologically interpretable.

## Eric Vanden-Eijnden : Transition Pathways of Rare Events

- Nonlinear and Complex Systems ( 201 Views )Many processes in nature occur in the form of rare but important events. Well known examples of such events include conformation changes of biomolecules, chemical reactions, and nucleation events during phase transformation. Rare events do not happen very often on the internal clock of the system (which makes their simulation very challenging), but this clock can be very fast and this leaves plenty of room for the appearance of rare events in our daily life. I will review classical theories for the description of rare events, recent theoretical developments such as Transition Path Theory, concept such as reaction coordinate or free energy of a reaction and I will discuss how to compute the pathway and rate of rare events efficiently using the String Method. As illustrations, I will discuss the hydrophobic collapse of a polymeric chain, phase transitions in the Ising model, and a genetic toggle switch.