This lecture ties together the strands developed in the first two lectures. We discuss a recent proof (due to H. Derksen, J. Weyman, and the speaker) of a series of conjectures on cluster algebras by means of the machinery of quivers with potentials. An important ingredient of our argument is a categorification of cluster algebras using quiver Grassmannians, a family of projective algebraic varieties that are a far-reaching generalization of ordinary Grassmannians. Generalizing an idea due to P. Caldero, F. Chapoton and B. Keller, we show that the Euler characteristics of these varieties carry crucial information about the structure of cluster algebras.
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