# Jeremy Rouse : Quadratic forms representing all odd positive integers

We consider the problem of classifying all positive-definite integer-valued quadratic forms that represent all positive odd integers. Kaplansky considered this problem for ternary forms, giving a list of 23 candidates, and proving that 19 of those represent all positive odds. (Jagy later dealt with a 20th candidate.) Assuming that the remaining three forms represent all positive odds, we prove that an arbitrary, positive-definite quadratic form represents all positive odds if and only if it represents the odd numbers from 1 up to 451. This result is analogous to Bhargava and Hanke's celebrated 290-theorem. In addition, we prove that these three remaining ternaries represent all positive odd integers, assuming the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis. This result is made possible by a new analytic method for bounding the cusp constants of integer-valued quaternary quadratic forms $Q$ with fundamental discriminant. This method is based on the analytic properties of Rankin-Selberg $L$-functions, and we use it to prove that if $Q$ is a quaternary form with fundamental discriminant, the largest locally represented integer $n$ for which $Q(\vec{x}) = n$ has no integer solutions is $O(D^{2 + \epsilon})$.

**Category**: Algebraic Geometry**Duration**: 01:34:54**Date**: November 14, 2012 at 4:25 PM**Views**: 119-
**Tags:**seminar, Algebraic Geometry Seminar

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