Mumford-Tate groups together with their associated Mumford-Tate domains, as their definitions, tell rich information about Hodge classes. While Abelian varieties with complex multiplication serve as (relatively simple) examples, the study on Mumford-Tate groups in general cases could be much more complicated. In this expository talk I will briefly summarize the literature in the view of algebraic geometry and representation theory. The relation between Mumford-Tate groups and the Hodge-generic properties of period maps will be emphasized. I will also talk about some recent applications, including part of the latest results on the distribution of Hodge locus worked out by Baldi-Klingler-Ullmo. The talk is supposed to be accessible for graduate students in algebraic geometry or related fields.