Yang-Mills theory on Asymptotically Locally Flat (ALF) 4-manifolds has been intensely studied by geometers and physicists since the late 70's. The most important examples are R^3 x S^1, the (multi-)Taub-NUT spaces, and the Euclidean Schwarzschild manifold. In this talk, I will outline the correspondence between spherically symmetric Yang-Mills instantons and planar Abelian vortices (following the ideas of Witten, Taubes, and Garcia-Prada), and then apply this instanton-vortex duality to spherically symmetric ALF 4-manifolds. Finally, I will show how this construction can be used to describe the low energy instanton moduli spaces of the Euclidean Schwarzschild manifold, and its generalizations. This is a joint work with Gonçalo Oliveira (IMPA).