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Amit Einav : Entropic Inequality on the Sphere

It is an interesting well known fact that the relative entropy with respect to the Gaussian measure on $\mathbb{R}^N$ satisfies a simple subadditivity property. Namely, if $\Pi_1^{(i)}(F_N)$ is the first marginal of the density function F_N in the i-th variable then \begin{equation} \sum_{i=1}^N H(\Pi_1^{(i)}(F_N) | \gamma_1) \leq H(F_N | \gamma_N), \end{equation} where $\gamma_k$ is the standard Gaussian on $\mathbb{R}^k$. Surprisingly enough, when one tries to achieve a similar result on $\mathbb{S}^{N-1}(\sqrt{N})$ a factor of 2 appears in the right hand side of the inequality (a result due to Carlen, Lieb and Loss), and the constant is sharp. Besides a deviation from the simple equivalence of ensembles principle in equilibrium Statistical Mechanics, this entropic inequality on the sphere has interesting ramifications in other fields, such as Kinetic Theory. In this talk we will present conditions on the density function F_N, on the sphere, under which we can get an ‘almost’ subaditivity property; i.e. the factor 2 can be replaced with a factor of $1+\epsilon_N$, with $\epsilon_N$ given explicitly and going to zero. The main tools to be used in order to proved this result are an entropy conservation extension of F_N to $\mathbb{R}^N$ together with comparison of appropriate transportation distances such as the entropy, Fisher information and Wasserstein distance between the marginal of the original density and that of the extension. Time permitting, we will give an example, one that arises naturally in the investigation of the so-called Kac Model, to many families of functions that satisfy these conditions.

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