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David Sivakoff : Polluted Bootstrap Percolation in Three Dimensions



In r-neighbor bootstrap percolation, the vertices of Z^d are initially occupied independently with probability p and empty otherwise. Occupied vertices remain occupied forever, and empty vertices iteratively become occupied when they have at least r occupied neighbors. It is a classic result of van Enter (r=d=2) and Schonmann (d>2 and r between 2 and d) that every vertex in Z^d eventually becomes occupied for any initial density p>0. In the polluted bootstrap percolation model, vertices of Z^d are initially closed with probability q, occupied with probability p and empty otherwise. The r-neighbor bootstrap rule is the same, but now closed vertices act as obstacles, and remain closed forever. This model was introduced 20 years ago by Gravner and McDonald, who studied the case d=r=2 and proved a phase transition exists for this model as p and q tend to 0. We prove a similar phase transition occurs when d=r=3, and we identify the polynomial scaling between p and q at which this transition occurs for the modified bootstrap percolation model. For one direction, our proof relies on duality methods in Lipschitz percolation to find a blocking structure that prevents occupation of the origin. The other direction follows from a rescaling argument, and the recent results of Holroyd and Gravner for d>r=2. This is joint work with Holroyd and Gravner.

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